Linux术语

Linux专业术语中英文对照

A

帐户名称(Account Name— 等同于登录标识、用户标识或用户名。是指派给 UNIX/Linux 系统上用户的名称。可以在系统上对多个用户设置唯一的帐户名称,每个用户具有不同的访问(权限)级别。在安装完 Linux 之后,帐户名称由超级用户(Superuser)或 root 操作员指派。
Account Name – Same as Login ID, User ID, or User Name. The name assigned to a
user on a UNIX/Linux system. Multiple users can be set up on a system with unique
account names, each with varying access (permission) levels. After Linux installation, account names are assigned by the Superuser, or root operator.

AfterStep— 用户界面(窗口管理器)之一,AfterStep 使得 Linux 的外观很象 NeXTSTEP,而且还有些增强功能。
AfterStep– One of several user interfaces (window managers), AfterStep makes Linux look and feel much like NeXTSTEP, with enhancements. For more on AfterStep, go to www.afterstep.org. (Also, see Enlightenment, GNOME, KDE, and X Window System.)

AwkAhoWeinberger Kernighan — 一种编程语言,因其模式匹配语法而特别有用,通常用于数据检索和数据转换。一个 GNU 版本称为 Gawk。
Awk (Aho, Weinberger, and Kernighan) – A programming language useful for its pattern-matching syntax, and often used for data retrieval and data transformation. A GNU version is called Gawk.

APM(高级电源管理,Advanced Power Management — 一种工业标准,它允许系统处理器和各个组件进入省电模式,包括挂起、睡眠和关机。APM 软件对于移动设备尤为重要,因为它节省了电池电量。
APM (Advanced Power Management) – An industry standard for allowing the system
processor and various components to enter power-saving modes, including suspend,
sleep and off. APM software is especially important for mobile devices, because it saves battery power.

附加符号(Append Symbol— 两个键盘字符 >(也就是 >>)。通常用它将命令的输出发送到文本文件,将数据附加到文件的尾部,而不是替换现有的内容。例如,ls -a >>output.txt 将当前目录列表发送到名为 output.txt 的文件,并将其添加到该文件的尾部。重复执行该命令会不断地将新数据添加到文件尾部。
Append Symbol – The > keyboard character, repeated (i.e., >>). It is often used to send the output from a command to a text file, appending the data to the end of the file, rather than replacing the existing content. For example, ls -a >> output.txt sends the current directory list to a file called output.txt, and adds it to the end of the file. Repeating the command will continue to add new data to the end of the file. (Also, see Piping Symbol and Redirection Symbol.)

归档文件(Archive— 含有多个文件的单个大型文件,通常对其进行压缩以节省存储空间。经常创建归档文件以方便计算机之间的传送。流行的归档格式包括 ARJ、TAR、ZIP 和 ZOO。它们都可以用来创建这样的归档文件。
Archive – A single large file containing multiple files, usually compressed to save storage space. Often created to facilitate transferring between computers. Popular archival formats include ARJ, TAR, ZIP and ZOO. Also, to create such an archive file.

ARJ— 流行的文件压缩/归档工具,可以用于 UNIX/Linux、DOS/Windows 和其它操作系统。用这种方式压缩的文件的扩展名通常是 .arj 或 .ar。
ARJ – A popular file compression/archival tool, available for UNIX/Linux, DOS/Windows, and other operating systems. Files compressed in this manner typically have .arj or .ar extensions.

B

后台进程(Background Process— 运行时无须用户输入的程序。可以在诸如 UNIX/Linux 之类的多任务操作系统上运行多个后台进程,而用户则与前台进程交互(例如,数据输入)。有些后台进程(例如守护程序)从来都不需要用户输入。其它一些进程只是在用户忙于目前运行于前台的程序时才临时处于后台。
Background Process – A program that is running without user input. A number of
background processes can be running on a multitasking operating system, such as
UNIX/Linux, while the user is interacting with the foreground process (for example, data entry). Some background processes–daemons, for example–never require user input. Others are merely in the background temporarily while the user is busy with the program presently running in the foreground.

BashBourne Again SHell — Bourne Shell 的增强版。
Bash (Bourne Again SHell) – An enhanced version of the Bourne Shell.

BDF 字体— 用于 X Window 系统的各种位图字体。
BDF Fonts – A variety of bitmapped fonts for the X Window System.

Bean — JavaBeans 体系结构的组件。
Beans – Components for the JavaBeans architecture.

Beowulf— 由相对廉价的计算机(包括 PC)组成的网络,这些计算机可能使用不同的处理器和硬件体系结构,由 Linux 和特殊的系统级软件将它们联合成一个海量并行计算系统。最终结果是一个能够以较低成本获得超级计算机计算能力的系统。这类系统对于诸如气象建模之类的计算密集型任务而言是非常理想的,因为可以将计算分配到几十、几百甚至几千个同时运行的独立处理器上。有时也称为“Beowulf 级超级计算机”或者超级群集计算机。
Beowulf – A network of relatively inexpensive computers (including PCs), potentially using different processors and hardware architectures, united by Linux and special system-level software into a massively parallel computing system. The end result is a system capable of supercomputer computation at a much lower price. This sort of system is ideal for compute-intensive tasks such as weather modeling, because the calculations can be divided among dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of separate processors all running simultaneously. Sometimes referred to a “Beowulf-class supercomputer”, or a super-cluster or hyper-cluster. For more on Beowulf technology, read the following

Bin— 一个含有可执行程序的目录,这些程序主要是二进制文件。
Bin – A directory containing executable programs, primarily binary files.

二进制文件(Binary)— 已被编译成可执行程序的源代码。在 UNIX/Linux 世界里,有些软件仅作为源代码分发;有些软件包既包含源代码又包含二进制文件;还有一些软件包则只以二进制文件格式分发。
Binaries – Source code that has been compiled into executable programs. In the
UNIX/Linux world, some software is distributed as source code only; other packages
include both source and binaries; still others are distributed only in binary format.

引导盘(Boot Disk— 一张软盘,其中含有操作系统(如 Linux)引导(启动)计算机并从命令行运行一些基本程序所需的足够内容。如果因某种原因导致系统表现为无法引导,那么引导盘是必需的。引导盘还用于对硬盘进行分区和格式化、恢复主引导记录(Master Boot Record)或者复制特定文件等。
Boot Disk – A diskette (floppy) containing enough of an operating system (such as Linux) to boot up (start) the computer and run some essential programs from the command line. This may be necessary if the system was rendered non-bootable for some reason. A boot disk can be used to partition and format the hard drive, restore the Master Boot Record, or copy specific files, among other things.

Bot— 机器人(Robot)的简称。它是一个程序,旨在在几乎没有人工干预下在因特网上搜索信息。
Bot – Short for Robot. A program designed to search for information on the Internet with little human intervention.

Bourne Shell— 一种流行的命令行 shell,它具有的优点比 DOS 命令提示符多很多。
Bourne Shell – A popular command line shell offering many advantages over the DOS
command prompt. (Also, see Bash and Korn Shell.)

BSDBerkeley 软件分发版,Berkeley Software DistributionUNIX — 加州大学伯克利分校开发的 UNIX。
BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) UNIX – UNIX distribution from University of California at Berkeley.

Bzip2— 一种较新的 UNIX/Linux 文件压缩程序,它比 Gzip 提供更大的压缩比。
Bzip2 – A newer file compression program for UNIX/Linux, providing smaller file sizes than Gzip.

(C)

CGI(公共网关接口,Common Gateway Interface) — 在 Web 服务器上,用来在脚本和/或应用程序之间传输数据,然后将该数据返回给 Web 页面或浏览器。CGI 脚本经常是使用 Perl 语言创建的,它能够生成动态 Web 内容(包括电子商业购物篮、讨论组、调查表单以及实时新闻等)。
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) – Used on Web servers to transmit data between
scripts and/or applications and then return the data to the Web page or browser. CGI scripts are often created using the Perl language, and can generate dynamic Web content (including e-commerce shopping baskets, discussion groups, survey forms, current news, etc.).

CHS(柱面/磁头/扇区,Cylinder/Head/Sector — FDISK 在分区期间所需的磁盘信息。
客户机(Client— 向服务器请求服务(例如,电子邮件)的机器。
CHS (Cylinder/Head/Sector) – Disk information required by FDISK during partitioning.

CLU(命令行实用程序,Command Line Utility — 从命令行会话或 shell 运行的程序,如 Tar 或 Mkdir。
CLU (Command Line Utility) – A program that is run from a command line session, or shell, such as Tar or Mkdir.

群集(Cluster— 由运行 Linux 的工作站(PC 或其它机器)组成的网络。(另请参阅“Beowulf”。)
Cluster – A network of workstations (PCs or other) running Linux. (Also, see Beowulf.)

COLA— 因特网新闻组 comp.os.linux.announce 的简称,该新闻组宣布一些与 Linux 相关的参考资料。
COLA – A shorthand way of referring to the Internet newsgroup comp.os.linux.announce, where Linux-related materials are announced.

命令行界面(Command Line Interface)(CLI — 全屏或窗口化的文本方式会话,在该会话中用户通过输入命令来执行程序,这些命令可以带参数,也可以不带参数。CLI 显示来自操作系统或程序的输出文本,并为用户输入提供命令提示符。
Command Line Interface (CLI) – A full-screen or windowed text-mode session where the user executes programs by typing in commands with or without parameters. The CLI displays output text from the operating system or program and provides a command
prompt for user input.

命令提示符(Command Prompt— DOS/Windows 和 OS/2 术语,是命令行界面的一部分,用户在该界面中输入命令。
Command Prompt – The DOS/Windows and OS/2 term for the part of the command line
interface where the user types commands. (Also, see Shell Prompt.)

编译(Compile— 将编程源代码转换成可执行程序。
Compile – To turn programming source code into an executable program.

编译型语言(Compiled Language— 一种语言,它需要编译器程序将编程源代码转换成可执行的机器语言二进制程序。一经编译,就可从程序的二进制形式多次运行程序,而无需再次编译。编译型语言/程序运行往往比解释型语言或伪代码语言快,但却需要编译器(可能很昂贵),而且用编译型语言编程常常会比用解释型语言和伪代码语言编程难。编译型语言的例子有 C 和 C++、COBOL 以及 FORTRAN。
Compiled Language – A language that requires a compiler program to turn programming
source code into an executable machine-language binary program. After compiling once, the program can continue to be run from its binary form without compiling again. Compiled languages/programs tend to be faster than interpreted or p-code languages, but require compilers (which can be expensive), and are often more difficult to program in than interpreted and p-code languages. Examples of compiled languages are C and C++, COBOL, and FORTRAN.

编译器(Compiler— 用于将编程源代码转换成可执行程序的程序。
Compiler – A program used to turn programming source code into an executable
program.

控制台应用程序(Console Application— 不需要(即便是提供了)图形用户界面就能运行的命令行程序。
Console Application – A command line program that does not require (or perhaps even offer) a graphical user interface to run.

Cron— Linux 守护程序,它在指定时间或按指定间隔执行规定的任务。
Cron – A Linux daemon that executes specified tasks at a designated time or interval.

(D) 

守护程序(Daemon— 操作系统的后台进程,通常具有 root 安全级别许可权。守护程序通常隐藏在后台,直至被某个事件(例如特定的时间或日期、时间间隔、收到电子邮件等)触发后它才会进入活动状态。
Daemon – A background process of the operating system that usually has root security-level permission. A daemon usually lurks in the background until something triggers it into activity, such as a specific time or date, time interval, receipt of e-mail, etc.

桌面(Desktop— 操作系统用户界面,旨在表示一个在上面放东西的办公桌。操作系统的桌面并不使用有形的电话、电灯、收/发箱等,而是使用程序及数据图标、窗口、任务栏和类似的东西。Linux 可以使用许多不同的桌面环境,包括 KDE、GNOME 和 X11,它们可以由用户安装。(另请参阅“GUI”、“窗口管理器”和“X Window 系统”。)
Desktop – The operating system user interface, which is designed to represent an office desk with objects on it. Rather than physical telephones, lamps, in/out baskets, etc., the operating system desktop uses program and data icons, windows, taskbars, and the like. There are many different desktop environments available for Linux, including KDE, GNOME, and X11, that can be installed by a user. (Also, see GUI, Window manager and X Window System.)

设备驱动程序(Device Driver— 一种程序,它充当操作系统与设备(端口、驱动器、监视器、打印机等)之间的媒介,它向操作系统说明该设备具备哪些能力,同时将操作系统命令转换成该设备可以理解的指令。
Device Driver – A program that serves as an intermediary between the operating system and a device (ports, drives, monitors, printers, etc.) defining to the operating system what capabilities the device has and translating the operating system commands into instructions the device understands.

分发版(Distribution— 将 Linux 内核(核心)连同各种用户界面、实用程序、驱动程序及其它软件打包成可交付给用户的软件包。分发版通常是以免费下载或廉价 CD-ROM 软件包的形式提供给用户的。流行的分发版包括 Caldera OpenLinux、CoreLinux、Debian、Red Hat、Slackware、SuSE、TurboLinux 及其它软件。
Distribution – A packaging of the Linux kernel (core) with various user interfaces, utilities, drivers, and other software into a user deliverable. Often available as a free download or in a low-cost CD-ROM package. Popular distributions include Caldera OpenLinux, CoreLinux, Debian, Red Hat, Slackware, SuSE, TurboLinux and others.

DpkgDebian 软件包管理器,Debian Package Manager — 可从因特网下载的打包及安装工具,它包含在 Debian Linux 中,但与其它分发版兼容。它生成具有 .DEB 扩展名的文件。与 RPM 类似。
Dpkg (Debian Package Manager) – A packaging and installation tool for Internet
downloads, included with Debian Linux but compatible with other distributions. It produces files with a .DEB extension. Similar to RPM.

(E) 

Emacs(用 MACroS 进行编辑,Editing with MACroS — 一个流行的文本编辑器。
Emacs (Editing with MACroS) – A popular text editor.
Enlightenment— 用户界面(窗口管理器)之一。
Enlightenment – One of several user interfaces (window managers). For more on
AfterStep, go to www.afterstep.org.

(F) 返回↑

文件系统(File System — 一组程序,它们告诉操作系统如何访问及解释存储在磁盘或磁带驱动器或者其它存储媒介上的内容。常见的文件系统包括:FAT 和 FAT-32(DOS/Windows)、HPFS(OS/2)、NFS、NTFS(Windows NT/2000)以及其它文件系统。

(F)

File System – A set of programs that tells an operating system how to access and
interpret the contents of a disk or tape drive, or other storage medium. Common file
systems include: FAT and FAT-32 (DOS/Windows), HPFS (OS/2), NFS, NTFS (Windows
NT/2000), and others.

过滤器(Filter— 一种程序,它(从文件、程序输出或命令行输入)读取数据作为输入,根据一组预定义条件处理输入(如按字母顺序排序),然后输出处理过的数据。一些常见的过滤器包括 Awk、Grep、Sed 和 Sort。
Filter – A program that reads data (from a file, program output or command line entry) as input, processes it according to a set of predefined conditions (for example, sorted alphabetically) and outputs the processed data. Some filters include Awk, Grep, Sed and Sort.

Finger— UNIX/Linux 命令,它提供登录用户的有关信息。
Finger – A UNIX/Linux command that provides information about users that are logged
on.

前台进程(Foreground Process— 在多任务操作系统(诸如 UNIX/Linux)中,前台进程是用户当前与之交互的程序(例如,数据输入)。随着用户在程序之间切换,会导致这些程序在不同的时刻处于前台。在层叠的窗口环境中,前台进程是最前面的窗口。
Foreground Process – In a multitasking operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, the
foreground process is the program that the user is interacting with at the present time (for example, data entry). Different programs can be in the foreground at different times, as the user jumps between them. In a tiered windowing environment, it is the topmost window.

FreeBSD(免费伯克利软件分发版,Free Berkeley Software Distribution — 类似于 Linux,因为它包含许多 GNU 程序,并且它运行的许多软件包与 Linux 所运行的相同。但一些内核功能的实现却不尽相同。、
FreeBSD (Free Berkeley Software Distribution) – Similar to Linux in that it includes many GNU programs and runs many of the same packages as Linux. However, some kernel functions are implemented differently. (Also, see BSD UNIX.)

FTP(文件传送协议,File Transfer Protocol — 与其它计算机(常常是软件资源库)来回传送文件的方法。
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – A method of transferring files to and from other
computers–often software repositories.

(G)

GCCGNU C 编译器,GNU C Compiler — 由 GPL 管理的一个高质量 C 编译器。
GCC (GNU C Compiler) – A high-quality C compiler governed by the GPL.

GIMPGNU 图像操作程序,GNU Image Manipulation Program — 一种用于 Linux 的、流行的图像编辑器/绘图程序。
GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) – A popular image editor/paint program for
Linux.

GNOMEGNU 网络对象模型环境,GNU Network Object Model Environment — 一种用于 Linux 的用户界面(窗口管理器),它是用 Gtk 构建的。
GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) – One of several user interfaces
(window managers) for Linux, built with Gtk.

GNUGNU 不是 UnixGNU is Not Unix)项目 — 麻省理工学院(MIT)自由软件基金会(Free Software Foundation,FSF)为开发和促进替代专有 UNIX 实现的产品所进行的项目。GNU 软件使用 GPL 许可证。
GNU (GNU is Not Unix) Project – An effort of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Free Software Foundation (FSF) to develop and promote alternatives to proprietary UNIX implementations. GNU software is licensed under the GPL.

GNU/Linux— 等同于 Linux。之所以这么称呼,是因为 Linux 分发版中包含的许多组件都是 GNU 工具。
GNU/Linux – Same as Linux. So-called because many of the components included in a Linux distribution are GNU tools.

GPLGNU 通用公共许可证,GNU General Public License — 一种公用及再分发许可证。
GPL (GNU General Public License) – A common usage and redistribution license.

Grep(全局正则表达式及打印,Global Regular Expression and Print— 一个工具,它在文件中搜索文本字符串,然后输出任何含该模式的行。
Grep (Global Regular Expression and Print) – A tool that searches files for a string of text and outputs any line that contains the pattern.

Gtk/Gtk+GIMP 工具箱,GIMP ToolKit — 一个功能强大而且快捷的开放源码图形库,用于 UNIX/Linux 上的 X Window 系统,程序员可以用来创建按钮、菜单及其它图形对象。
Gtk/Gtk+ (GIMP ToolKit) – A powerful, fast open source graphics library for the X window System on UNIX/Linux, used by programmers to create buttons, menus and other
graphical objects. (Also, see GNOME, Motif and Qt.)

GUI(图形用户界面,Graphical User Interface — 图标、窗口及屏幕上其它图形图像的集合,它们提供了用户与操作系统交互的方法。
GUI (Graphical User Interface) – The collection of icons, windows, and other onscreen graphical images that provide the user’s interaction with the operating system.

GzipGNU zip — UNIX/Linux 最初的文件压缩程序。最新的版本生成扩展名为 .gz 的文件。(扩展名 .z 或 .Z 表明是较老版本的 Gzip。)压缩是为了使文件紧凑以节省存储空间并缩短传送时间。(当与 Tar 结合使用时,生成文件的扩展名可能为 .tgz、.tar.gz 或 .tar.Z。)
Gzip (GNU zip) – The original file compression program for UNIX/Linux. Recent versions produce files with a .gz extension. (A .z or .Z extension indicates an older version of Gzip.) Compression is used to compact files to save storage space and reduce transfer time. (When combined with Tar, the resulting file extensions may be .tgz, .tar.gz or .tar.Z.)

(H) 

Home 目录— 用户登录之后所在的目录。
Home Directory – The directory the user is placed in after logging on.

HTML(超文本标记语言,Hyper Text Markup Language — 用于设计 Web 页面的标准标记语言。标记“tag”或格式化命令允许 Web 页面设计人员确定突出显示、定位图形及创建超链接等等。
HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) – The standard markup language for designing
Web pages. Markup “tags,” or formatting commands, allow the Web page designer to
specify highlighting, position graphics, create hyperlinks, etc.

HTTP(超文本传输协议,Hyper Text Transport Protocol — 一组创建的准则,用于请求和发送基于 HTML 的 Web 页面。
HTTP (Hyper Text Transport Protocol) – The set of guidelines created for requesting and sending HTML-based Web pages.

(I)

Init— 操作系统装入后立即运行的第一个进程。它以单用户方式启动系统或生成 shell 来读取启动文件,并打开指定用于登录的端口。
Init – The first process to run immediately after the operating system loads. It starts the system in single-user mode or spawns a shell to read the startup files, and opens ports designated as login ports.

解释型语言(Interpreted Language— 与编译型程序不同,每次运行解释型程序时都要由解释器程序实时地将源代码转换成二进制形式,而编译型程序由编译器一次性将源代码转换成可执行代码,随后从其二进制形式运行。解释型语言(以及用它们编写的程序)往往要比编译型语言及伪代码语言/程序慢,并且通常只有有限的底层操作系统功能访问权限或直接访问硬件的权限。但从另一角度来说,它们无需编译器(可能非常昂贵),并且经常包含在操作系统中,通常比编译型语言更容易编程。解释型语言的例子有 BASIC、Perl、Python 和 REXX/Object REXX。
Interpreted Language – Unlike a compiled program, which is converted from source
code to an executable one time, by a compiler, and then run from its binary form, an interpreted program is converted to binary on the fly each time it is run, by an interpreter program. Interpreted languages (and thus their programs) tend to be slower than compiled and p-code languages/programs, and generally have limited authorization to low-level operating system functions or direct hardware access. On the other hand, they do not require compilers (which can be expensive), are often included along with operating systems, and are usually easier to program than compiled languages. Examples of interpreted languages are BASIC, Perl, Python and REXX/Object REXX.

(J) 

Java— Sun Microsystems 开发的、独立于操作系统的面向对象编程语言。Java 通常用于 Web 服务器。Java 应用程序和 applet 有时以下载的形式提供给用户,以便在他们的系统上运行。Java 编程语言可以编制应用程序或较小的 Java“applet”。Java 是 C++ 语言稍加简化的版本,通常是进行解释而不是编译。(另请参阅“JIT 编译器”。)
Java– An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystemsto be operating system independent. Java is often used on Web servers. Java applications and applets are sometimes offered as downloads to run on users’ systems. Java programming can produce applications, or smaller Java “applets.” Java is a somewhat simplified version of the C++ language, and is normally interpreted rather than compiled.

Java Applet— 嵌入在 Web 页面内的小型 Java 程序,它在浏览器内运行,而不是作为独立的应用程序运行。Applet 不能够访问本地计算机上的一些资源,如文件和串行设备(调制解调器、打印机等),通常也不能通过网络与其它计算机通信。
Java Applets – Small Java programs that are embedded in a Web page and run within a browser, not as a stand-alone application. Applets cannot access some resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and generally cannot communicate with other computers across a network.

JavaBeans— Java 语言的组件体系结构。JavaBeans 组件称为 Bean。
JavaBeans – A component architecture for the Java language. JavaBeans components
are called Beans.

JavaScript— 跨平台万维网脚本编制语言,似乎与 Java 有关,(zlzxy注:其实本质上没什么关系,借用了java的名字而已,因为当时java已经有了名气)。它可以用作服务器端脚本编制语言、由服务器解析的 HTML 中的嵌入语言以及浏览器中的嵌入语言。
JavaScript – A cross-platform World Wide Web scripting language, vaguely related to Java. It can be used as a server-side scripting language, as an embedded language in server-parsed HTML, and as an embedded language for browsers.

JDKJava 开发工具箱,Java Development Kit — 由 Sun、IBM 或其它公司开发的 Java 编程工具箱,可以用于 UNIX/Linux 及其它操作系统。
JDK (Java Development Kit) – A Java programming toolkit from Sun, IBM or others,
available for UNIX/Linux and other operating systems.
JFS(日志文件系统,Journaled/Journaling File System) — 包含内置备份/恢复能力的文件系统。对索引的更改在生效之前先写入日志文件,这样如果索引遭到破坏(例如,在写索引期间断电),那么就可以从日志重建索引,包括对索引的更改。
JFS (Journaled/Journaling File System) – A file system that includes built-in
backup/recovery capabilities. Changes to the index are written to a log file before the changes take effect so that if the index is corrupted (by a power failure during the index write, for example), the index can be rebuilt from the log, including the changes.

Jini— 读作“Genie”。Sun 开发的软件,工作起来有些象“即插即用”,因为它允许硬件设备在被连接时向操作系统通报自己(并提供关于该设备的详细信息),而无须系统重新引导。它也向系统所连接的网络通报它自己,从而方便地向网络提供设备共享。
Jini– Pronounced “Genie”. Software from Sun that works somewhat like “plug-and-play”, in that it allows a hardware device to announce itself to the operating system (and provide details about the device) when the hardware is attached, without requiring a system reboot. It also announces itself to the network the system is connected to, providing easy network sharing of the device.

JITJust-In-Time)编译器 — Java 语言编译器,它允许实时地将 Java 解释型程序自动编译成本机机器语言,以使程序执行的速度更快。有些 JVM 包含 JIT 编译器。
JIT (Just-In-Time) Compiler – A compiler for the Java language that allows interpreted Java programs to be automatically compiled into native machine language on the fly, for faster performance of the program. Some JVMs include a JIT compiler.

日志记录(Journaling— 也就是“日志记录(logging)”。将信息写入日志文件,可以作为一种跟踪更改的方法。
Journaling – Same as “logging.” Writing information to a journal (log) file as a method of tracking changes.

JVMJava 虚拟机,Java Virtual Machine — Java 运行时环境,是运行 Java 程序所必需的,包含 Java 解释器。不同的操作系统(Linux、OS/2、Windows 98 等等)需要不同的 JVM,但任一 JVM 都可以运行某个 Java 程序的同一版本。
JVM (Java Virtual Machine) – A Java runtime environment, required for the running of Java programs, which includes a Java interpreter. A different JVM is required for each unique operating system (Linux, OS/2, Windows 98, etc.), but any JVM can run the same version of a Java program.

(K)

KDEK 桌面环境,K Desktop Environment — Linux 用户界面(窗口管理器)之一,是用 Qt 构建的。
KDE (K Desktop Environment) – One of several user interfaces (window managers) for Linux, built with Qt.

内核(Kernel— 操作系统的核心,其它所有组件都依赖于它。内核管理诸如低层硬件交互及资源共享之类的任务,包括内存分配、输入/输出、安全性和用户访问。
Kernel – The core of the operating system, upon which all other components rely. The kernel manages such tasks as low-level hardware interaction and the sharing of
resources, including memory allocation, input/output, security, and user access.
Korn Shell— Bourne Shell 的增强版本,包括广泛的脚本编制支持及命令行编辑。它支持许多为 Bourne Shell 编写的脚本。
Korn Shell – An enhanced version of the Bourne Shell, including extensive scripting support and command line editing. It supports many scripts written for the Bourne Shell.

(L) 

LGPL(库 GPLLibrary GPL — GPL 的一种变体,它包含程序库。
LGPL (Library GPL) – A variation of the GPL that covers program libraries.

LHArc— 一种较老的文件压缩和归档方法,现已很少使用。使用这一技术打包的文件的扩展名通常都是 .lha 或 .lzh。
LHArc – An older file compression and archiving method rarely used anymore. Files
packaged with this technology typically have a .lha or .lzh extension.
LILOLinux 装载程序,LInux LOader — 一种流行的分区引导管理器实用程序,能够引导到 Linux 以外的操作系统。它并不特定于文件系统。
LILO (LInux LOader) – A popular partition boot manager utility, capable of booting to operating systems other than Linux. It is not file system-specific.

Linux— 类 UNIX 的开放源码操作系统,最初由 Linus Torvalds 发起。“Linux”实际上仅指操作系统内核或核心。已经有 200 多人为开发 Linux 内核做出了贡献。Linux 分发版的其余部分由各种实用程序、设备驱动程序、应用程序、用户界面和其它工具组成,一般也可对这些工具进行编译并在其它 UNIX 操作系统上运行。
Linux – An open source UNIX-like operating system, originally begun by Linus Torvalds. “Linux” really refers to only the operating system kernel, or core. More than 200 people have contributed to the development of the Linux kernel. The rest of a Linux distribution consists of various utilities, device drivers, applications, a user interface and other tools that generally can be compiled and run on other UNIX operating systems as well.

Linux for RS/6000— 一种可从 SuSE 获得的 Linux 版本,它旨在在 IBM RS/6000 超级计算机上运行。
Linux for RS/6000– A version of Linux available from SuSE that is designed to run on an IBM RS/6000 supercomputer.

Linux for S/390— 一种 Linux 版本,旨在作为虚拟机会话中的客户机操作系统,运行在 IBM S/390 大型机上。
Linux for S/390– A version of Linux designed to run on an IBM S/390 mainframe 
computer as a client operating system within a Virtual Machine session. For more
information, go to oss.software.ibm.com/developerworks/opensource/linux390.

记录日志或日志(Log— 存储应用程序或者系统消息或错误信息。也指存储这类信息的文件。
Log – To store application or system messages or errors. Also, a file that holds this information.

Lynx— 一种流行的非图形(基于文本的)Web 浏览器。
Lynx – A popular non-graphical (text-based) Web browser.

(M)

宏(Macro— 一组以可执行形式存储的指令。宏可以是特定于应用程序的(诸如在电子表单或字处理程序内执行特定步骤的宏),也可以是通用的(例如,键盘宏,在键盘上按下 Ctrl-U 时输入用户标识)。
Macro – A set of instructions stored in an executable form. Macros may be application-specific (such as a spreadsheet or word processing macro that performs specific steps within that program) or general-purpose (for example, a keyboard macro that types in a user ID when Ctrl-U is pressed on the keyboard).

Man— 读取联机手册页的 UNIX/Linux 命令。
Man – The UNIX/Linux command for reading online manual pages.

MBR(主引导记录,Master Boot Record — 可引导磁盘驱动器上的第一个物理扇区。计算机刚开始引导时,系统 BIOS 查看该扇区以确定当前哪个分区是活动的(可引导的),随后读取该分区的第一个(引导)扇区并从该分区引导。
MBR (Master Boot Record) – The first physical sector on a bootable disk drive. The place where the system BIOS looks when the computer is first booted, to determine which partition is currently active (bootable), before reading that partition’s first (boot) sector and booting from the partition.

Mesa — OpenGL(开放图形库,Open Graphics Library)API(应用程序编程接口,Application Programming Interface)的一种实现。它为编写由硬件辅助的 2D 和 3D 图形软件提供了标准准则和工具集。
Mesa – An implementation of the OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) API (Application
Programming Interface). It provides standard guidelines and a toolset for writing 2D and 3D hardware-assisted graphics software.

MIME(多用途因特网邮件交换,Multipurpose Internet Mail Exchange — 允许文本电子邮件消息包含非文本(例如图形、视频或音频)数据的通信协议。
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Exchange) – A communications protocol that allows text e-mail messages to include non-textual (graphics, video or audio, for example) data.
Motif — 用于 UNIX/Linux 的专有强大图形库,由开放软件基金会(Open Software Foundation (OSF))开发,供程序员用来为 X Window 系统创建按钮、菜单及其它图形对象。
Motif – A powerful proprietary graphics library for UNIX/Linux, developed by the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and used by programmers to create buttons, menus and
other graphical objects for the X Window System.
挂装(Mount— 在使用磁盘驱动器之前向文件系统标识磁盘驱动器。
Mount – Identify a disk drive to the file system before use.

多任务(Multitasking— 操作系统一次运行多个程序或任务的能力。协作式多任务 OS,如 Windows 95/98,要求应用程序主动释放另一个程序请求的资源,以便另一个应用程序能够使用这些资源。抢先式多任务 OS(例如 UNIX/Linux、Windows NT/2000 或 OS/2)中,操作系统基于时间片或基于优先级命令应用程序释放资源时,应用程序释放资源,以便在其它程序需要资源时,正在使用这些资源的应用程序不会独占它们。(另请参阅“多线程”和“分时”。)
Multitasking – The ability of an operating system to run more than one program, or task, at a time. A cooperative multitasking OS, like Windows 95/98, requires one application to voluntarily free up resources upon request so another application can use it. A preemptive multitasking OS, such as UNIX/Linux, Windows NT/2000 or OS/2, frees up resources when ordered to by the operating system, on a time-slice basis, or a priority basis, so that one application is unable to hog resources when they are needed by another program.

多线程(Multithreading— 操作系统并发运行被分成子组件或多个线程的程序的能力。如果运用得当,多线程可以更好地利用处理器及其它系统资源。多线程编程需要多任务/多线程操作系统,例如 UNIX/Linux、Windows NT/2000 或 OS/2,这些操作系统能够并发地运行多个程序。字处理程序可以充分利用多线程,因为它可以在前台进行拼写检查,同时在后台进行存盘并将输出发送到系统打印假脱机程序。
Multithreading – The ability of an operating system to concurrently run programs that have been divided into subcomponents, or threads. Multithreading, when done correctly, offers better utilization of processors and other system resources. Multithreaded programming requires a multitasking/multithreading operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, Windows NT/2000 or OS/2, capable of running many programs concurrently. A word processor can make good use of multithreading, because it can spell check in the foreground while saving to disk and sending output to the system print spooler in the background.

(N) 

NFS(网络文件系统,Network File System — 一种允许跨网络或因特网共享文件的文件系统。
NFS (Network File System) – A file system that allows the sharing of files across a network or the Internet.

新手(Newbie— 一般而言,指刚接触因特网、计算机的人或者指刚接触 Linux 的人(例如,“Linux 新手”)。
Newbie – Someone new to the Internet, computers in general, or Linux specifically (e.g.,a “Linux newbie”).

(O) 

面向对象(Object-Oriented— 一种软件开发方法,它为程序员提供标准可重用的软件模块(组件),而无需开发人员每次都编写定制编程代码。使用标准组件缩短了开发时间(因为其他程序员已经编写并测试了这些组件),并且通过使用相同的组件确保了程序具有标准的外观。
Object-Oriented – A software development methodology that offers the programmer
standard reusable software modules (components), rather than requiring the developer to write custom programming code each time. Using standard components reduces development time (because the writing and testing of those components has already been done by other programmers), and ensures a standard look and feel for programs using the same components.

OO— 参阅“面向对象”。
OO – See Object-Oriented.

开放源码(Open Source— 一个稍显模糊的术语,是指同源代码一起发布的软件。提供源代码这一事实并不一定意味着用户可以修改和重新分发源代码。这个术语有时可以和“免费软件”互换使用,尽管它们的意思并不总是相同。
Open Source – A somewhat ambiguous term that refers to software that is released with its source code. The fact that the source code is provided does not necessarily mean that users can modify and redistribute the source code. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with “free software,” although they are not always the same.

OSS(开放声音系统,Open Sound System — 用于在 UNIX/Linux 下访问声卡及其它音频设备的设备驱动程序。它是从 Linux 声音驱动程序(Linux Sound Driver)发展而来的,支持大多数流行的音频芯片及适配器。
OSS (Open Sound System) – A device driver for accessing sound cards and other audio
devices under UNIX/Linux. It evolved from the Linux Sound Driver, and supports most
popular audio chips and adapters.

OSS(开放源码软件,Open Source Software — 参阅“开放源码”。
OSS (Open Source Software) – See Open Source.

所有者(Owner— 对文件具有访问特权的用户;通常是创建该文件的用户。
Owner – The user who has privileged access to a file; typically the user who created the file.

(P) 

伪代码(P-codePseudo-code)语言 — 一种解释型语言。伪代码语言有点象个“混血儿”,执行方式介于编译型语言和解释型语言之间。和解释型语言一样,伪代码编程语言无需编译,在执行时自动转换成二进制形式。然而,和编译型语言不同的是,这种可执行的二进制文件是以伪代码的形式而不是机器语言的形式存储的。此外,不同于解释型语言的是,不必在每次运行该程序的时候,都必须将其转换成二进制。在第一次转换成伪代码后,以后每次执行都可使用该伪代码版本。伪代码语言(以及用它编写的程序)往往比编译型语言及程序慢,但比解释型语言快,它们通常具有访问一些低层操作系统功能的权限,但却不能直接访问硬件。它们不需要有时很昂贵的编译器,通常与操作系统包含在一起,有些伪代码语言比编译型语言更容易编程。伪代码语言的例子有 Java、Python 和 REXX/Object REXX。
P-code (Pseudo-code) Language – A type of Interpreted language. P-code languages
are something of a hybrid, falling between compiled languages and interpreted languages in the way they execute. Like an interpreted language, P-code programming is converted to a binary form automatically when it is run, rather than having to be compiled. However, unlike a compiled language the executable binary file is stored in pseudo-code, not machine language. In addition, unlike an Interpreted language, the program does not have to be converted to binary each time it is run. After it is converted to P-code the first time, the pseudo-code version is used for each additional execution. P-code languages (and thus their programs) tend to be slower than compiled languages and programs but faster than interpreted languages, and they generally have authorization to some low-level operating system functions but not direct hardware access. They do not require sometimes-expensive compilers, are often included along with operating systems, and some p-code languages are easier to program than compiled languages. Examples of P-code languages are Java, Python and REXX/Object REXX.

PAM(可插入的认证模块,Pluggable Authentication Modules — 用于系统安全性的可替换的用户认证模块,它允许在不知道将使用何种认证方案的情况下进行编程。这允许将来用其它模块来替换某个模块,却无需重写软件。
PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) – A replaceable user authentication module for system security, which allows programs to be written without knowing which
authentication scheme will be used. This allows a module to be replaced later with a different module without requiring rewriting the software.
面板(Panel— Linux 中对应于 Windows 任务栏的名称。
Panel – The name for the Linux equivalent of the Windows Taskbar.

分区(Partition— 磁盘驱动器的一个连续部分,它被操作系统当作物理驱动器。这样,可以为一个磁盘驱动器赋予几个驱动器符号。
Partition – A contiguous section of a disk drive that is treated by the operating system as a physical drive. Thus, one disk drive can have several drive letters assigned to it.

PCF 字体— X Window 系统使用的各种位图字体。
PCF fonts – A variety of bitmapped fonts to be used with the X Window System.

PD— 参阅“公共域”。
PD – See Public Domain.

PDF(可移植文档格式,Portable Document Format)文件 — 用 Adobe Acrobat 或其它能够生成该格式输出的程序创建的二进制文件。用于生成独立于操作系统的文档,这种文档可以使用 Acrobat Reader 或其它程序(包括配备有 Acrobat Reader 插件的 Web 浏览器)来查看。
PDF (Portable Document Format) files – Binary files created with Adobe Acrobat or other programs capable of producing output in this format. Used for producing operating system-independent documents, which can be viewed using Acrobat Reader or other programs, including Web browsers equipped with an Acrobat Reader plug-in.

Perl(实用摘录与报告语言,Practical Extraction and Report Language — 一种常用的脚本编制/编程语言。经常用在 UNIX/Linux Web 服务器上生成 CGI 脚本。
Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language) – A common scripting/programming
language. It is often used on UNIX/Linux Web servers for generating CGI scripts.

权限(Permission— 读写文件和目录及执行程序的权限。超级用户或 root 操作员可以逐个文件、逐个目录地,或者按照帐户名称(用户标识)赋予各种权限级别。
Permission – The authority to read and write files and directories, and execute programs. Varying permission levels can be assigned by the Superuser, or root operator, on a file-by-file, directory-by-directory basis or by account name (User ID).

PGP(高质量保密程序,Pretty Good Privacy — 用于 UNIX/Linux 及其它操作系统的高安全性公钥数据加密程序。
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) – A high-security, public-key data encryption program for UNIX/Linux and other operating systems.

管道符号(Piping Symbol— 键盘字符 |(典型 101 键键盘的 Enter 键上面反斜杠的上档字符)。经常用来将某个命令或程序的输出提供给另一个命令或程序。例如,history | grep mcopy (用 history 命令)将 .bash_history 文件的内容发送到 grep 程序,以搜索字符串“mcopy”。
Piping Symbol – The | keyboard character (the Shift-Backslash character above the Enter key on a typical 101-key keyboard). It is often used to feed the output from one command or program to another. For example, history | grep mcopy sends the contents of the .bash_history file (via the history command) to the grep program, searching for the string “mcopy”. (Also, see Append Symbol and Redirection Symbol.)

移植(Port/Ported/Porting— 一个过程,即获取为某个操作系统平台编写的程序,并对其进行修改使之能在另一 OS 上运行,并且具有类似的功能。通常很少或者干脆就不尝试定制程序以利用新操作系统的特有能力,这与为某个特定操作系统优化应用程序不同。
可移植(Portable— 描述一类软件的术语,这类软件旨在只需少量修改和重新编译就可在多个操作系统上使用。
Portable – A term referring to software that is designed to be use on more than one operating system with only minor modifications and recompilation.

POSIXUNIX 可移植操作系统接口,Portable Operating System Interface for uniX — 一组编程接口标准,它们规定如何编写应用程序源代码以便应用程序可在操作系统之间移植。POSIX 基于 UNIX,它是 The Open Group 的 X/Open 规范的基础。
POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for uniX) – A set of programming interface standards governing how to write application source code so that the applications are portable between operating systems. POSIX is based on UNIX and is the basis for the X/Open specification of The Open Group.

PostScript— Adobe Systems 开发的页描述语言,它告诉打印机如何在打印页上显示文本或图形。
PostScript – A page description language developed by Adobe Systems that tells a printer how to display text or graphics on a printed page.

PostScript 字体— 可以用于 OS/2、MS Windows 和 X Window 系统的大量字体。这类字体文件的扩展名包括 .afm、.pfa 和 .pfb。有时称为 Adobe Type 1 字体或 ATM(Adobe Type Manager)字体。PostScript 字体通常需要与 PostScript 兼容的打印机。
PostScript Fonts – A wide variety of fonts that can be used with OS/2, MS Windows and the X Window System. Font files include those with .afm, .pfa and .pfb extensions. Sometimes called Adobe Type 1 fonts, or ATM (Adobe Type Manager) fonts. PostScript fonts typically require a PostScript-compatible printer. (Also, see BDF Fonts and TrueType Fonts.)

进程(Process— 正在执行的程序。
Process – An executing program. (Also, see Multitasking and Multithreading.)

公共域(Public Domain— 可供任何人以任何目的使用和修改的软件,甚至可以将其并入商业软件的分发。公共域软件不保留版权,作者也不保留任何权利。
Public Domain – Software that is available to be used and modified by anyone, for any purpose, and may even be incorporated for distribution in commercial software. Public domain software is not copyrighted, and no rights are retained by the author.
公钥加密(Public Key Encryption— 一种包括两个单独密钥(公钥和私钥)的数据加密方法。使用公钥加密的数据只能用私钥解密,反之亦然。一般而言,公钥是公开的,可以用来加密发送给私钥持有者的数据,私钥用来对数据进行签名。
Public Key Encryption – A method of data encryption that involves two separate keys: a public key and a private key. Data encrypted with the public key can be decrypted only with the private key and vice versa. Typically, the public key is published and can be used to encrypt data sent to the holder of the private key, and the private key is used to sign data.

Python— 一种面向对象伪代码编程语言。
Python – An object-oriented p-code programming language.

(Q) 

Qt— 一种功能强大且快捷的开放源码图形库,用于 UNIX/Linux 上的 X Window 系统。它被程序员用来创建按钮、菜单和其它图形对象。
Qt – A powerful, fast open source graphics library for the X Window System on
UNIX/Linux, which is used by programmers to create buttons, menus, and other graphical objects.
队列(Queue— (也时被错误地拼成 Que。)一列等待执行的任务,如“打印队列”。
Queue – (Sometimes incorrectly spelled Que.) A list of tasks awaiting execution, as in “the print queue.”

(R) 

RAID(独立/廉价磁盘/设备冗余阵列,Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks/Devices— 一种提供数据冗余、改善性能和/或从磁盘崩溃中迅速恢复数据的方法,它是通过在多个磁盘驱动器上分布或复制数据来实现这一点的。常用的 RAID 类型包括 RAID 0(数据条带化),RAID 1(磁盘镜像)和 RAID 5(具有分布式奇偶校验的条带化)。RAID 配置通常需要 SCSI 磁盘驱动器(而不是 IDE/EIDE),可能要求磁盘相同(相同的容量、品牌等等)。操作系统将 RAID 阵列看作单个设备。
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks/Devices) – A method of
providing data redundancy, improved performance and/or quick data recoverability from disk crashes, by spreading or duplicating data across multiple disk drives. Commonly used RAID types include RAID 0 (Data Striping), RAID 1 (Disk Mirroring) and RAID 5 (Striping with Distributed Parity). RAID configurations typically require SCSI disk drives (not IDE/EIDE) and may require identical drives (same capacity, brand, etc.). RAID arrays appear to the operating system as a single device.
RC 文件— 含有程序(应用程序甚至操作系统)启动指令的脚本文件。这一文件在操作系统启动时会自动执行,它含有要运行的指令(命令或其它脚本)列表。
RC File – A script file containing the startup instructions for a program (an application or even the operating system). The file, to be executed automatically when the operating system is started, contains a list of instructions (commands or other scripts) to run.

RCS(修订控制系统,Revision Control System — 一组程序,它们控制组环境下文件的共享访问并跟踪文本文件的变化。常用于维护源代码模块的编码工作。
RCS (Revision Control System) – A suite of programs that controls shared access to files in a group environment and tracks text file changes. Generally used for maintaining programming source code modules.

Rdev— 用于获取关于某个 Linux 系统信息的实用程序。用来查询和设置图像 root 设备、视频方式以及交换设备和 RAM 磁盘。
Rdev – A utility for obtaining information about a Linux system. It is used to query and set the image root device, the video mode, the swap device and a RAM disk.

重定向符号(Redirection Symbol— 键盘字符 >。经常用于将命令的输出发送到文本文件。例如,ls -a > output.txt 将当前目录列表发送到名为 output.txt 的文件。重复该命令将会用新数据替换该文件的内容。
Redirection Symbol – The > keyboard character. It is often used to send the output from a command to a text file. For example, ls -a > output.txt sends the current
directory list to a file called output.txt. Repeating the command will replace the content of the file with new data.
RFS(远程文件共享,Remote File Sharing — 一个程序,它让用户访问其它计算机上的文件,就好象文件在用户的系统上一样。
RFS (Remote File Sharing) – A program that lets the user access files on another
computer as if they were on the user’s system.

Root 操作员— 具有执行所有系统级任务权限的用户标识。(也称作超级用户。)
Root Operator – The user ID with authority to perform all system-level tasks. 、
Root 窗口— 运行 Linux 桌面的底层会话。
Root Window – The underlying session in which the Linux desktop runs.

RPMRPM 软件包管理器,RPM Package Manager — 一种用于因特网下载包的打包及安装工具,它包含在某些 Linux 分发版中。它生成具有 .RPM 扩展名的文件。与 Dpkg 类似。
RPM (RPM Package Manager) – A packaging and installation tool for Internet downloads, included with some Linux distributions. It produces files with a .RPM extension. Similar to Dpkg.

(S) 

脚本(Script— 一组存储在文件中的命令。用于进行自动重复的执行。
Script – A set of commands stored in a file. Used for automated, repetitive, execution.

会话(Session— 用户在登录到注销期间与操作系统之间的完整交互过程。
Session – A complete interaction period between the user and the operating system, from login to logoff.

共享软件(Shareware— 一类商业软件,它以“先试用再买”的形式提供。如果客户在经过较短的试用期后继续使用该产品,那么他们就被要求支付规定数额(通常微乎其微)的费用。
Shareware – A form of commercial software, where it is offered as “try before you buy”. If the customer continues to use the product after a short trial period, they are required to pay a specified, usually nominal, fee. (Also, see Open Source and Public Domain.)

Shell— 含有操作系统命令行界面的文本方式窗口。
Shell – A text-mode window containing a command line interface to the operating system.

Shell 提示符— shell 的用户输入区域。尽管在 DOS shell 中命令提示符指定为大于号(>),但在 Linux 中,命令提示符通常是百分号(%)、美元符号($)或其它特殊符号,这取决于所使用的 shell。
Shell Prompt – The user input area of a shell. Whereas in a DOS shell the command
prompt is designated by a Greater Than (>) symbol, in Linux it is usually a Percent (%) symbol, Dollar sign ($) or other special character, depending on the shell used.
Shell 脚本— 设计成在 shell 启动时自动运行的脚本。
Shell Script – A script designed to be run automatically when a shell is started.

SHTTP(安全超文本传输协议,Secure Hyper Text Transport Protocol — HTTP 的一种安全的加密版本,用于金融交易以及其它借助因特网发送的保密信息。斜杠(/)— 文件路径名中使用的符号,而不是 DOS/Windows 和 OS/2 操作系统中使用的反斜杠(\)。
SHTTP (Secure Hyper Text Transport Protocol) – A secure, encrypted version of HTTP
used for financial transactions and other private information sent via the Internet. Slash (/) – The symbol used in file pathnames, instead of the backslash (\) used in the DOS/Windows and OS/2 operating systems.
源代码(Source Code— 程序员输入的、原始状态的编程命令。有些编程语言允许命令实时地由程序解释器执行。其它语言则要求必须先将命令编译成可执行程序(二进制)后才能使用这些命令。在 UNIX/Linux 世界中,有些软件仅以源代码形式分发;另一些软件包则同时包含源代码和二进制代码;还有一些则仅以二进制格式分发。
Source Code – Programming commands in their raw state as input by a programmer.
Some programming languages allow the commands to be executed on the fly by a program interpreter. Other languages require the commands to be compiled into executable programs (binaries) before they can be used. In the UNIX/Linux world, some software is distributed as source code only; other packages include both source and binaries; still others are distributed in binary format only.

假脱机(Spool)(外围设备联机并发操作,Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line — 将数据发送给一个程序,该程序将该数据信息放入队列以备将来使用(例如,打印假脱机程序)。
Spool (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) – To send data to a program that
queues up the information for later use (for example, the print spooler).
SQL(结构化查询语言(Structured Query Language)) — 用于操作关系数据库中的记录和字段(行和列)的语言。有时被错误地读成“sequel”。
SQL (Structured Query Language) – The language used for manipulating records and
fields (rows and columns) in a relational database. Sometimes erroneously pronounced
“sequel”.
隐写术(Steganography— 将一段信息隐藏在另一段信息中的做法。一个示例是在数字化照片中放置不可见的数字水印。
Steganography – The practice of hiding one piece of information within another. One example is putting an invisible digital watermark in a digitized photograph.

字符串(String— 字符序列,如“搜索字符串”。
String – A sequence of characters, as in a “search string.”

超级用户(Superuser— 通常与 root 操作员同义。
Superuser – Usually synonymous with root operator.

交换(Swap— 暂时将数据(程序和/或数据文件)从随机存取存储器移到磁盘存储器(换出),或反方向移动(换入),以允许处理比物理内存所能容纳的更多的程序和数据。也称为虚拟内存。
Swap – To temporarily move data (programs and/or data files) from random access
memory to disk storage (swap out), or back (swap in), to allow more programs and data to be processed than there is physical memory to hold it. Also called Virtual Memory.

交换空间(Swap Space— 被交换数据在磁盘上暂时存放的地方。Linux 用专用磁盘分区而不是特定交换文件来作为交换空间。
Swap Space – Where swapped data is temporarily stored on disk. Linux uses a dedicated
disk partition for swap space, rather than a specific swap file.
符号链接(Symbolic link— 程序或文件的别名或快捷方式。
Symbolic link – An alias or shortcut to a program or file.

同步(Sync— 将所有暂挂的输入/输出强制写回磁盘驱动器。
Sync – To force all pending input/output to the disk drive.

系统日志(Syslog— UNIX/Linux 系统日志记录程序,其中存储了所有系统消息或错误。
Syslog – The UNIX/Linux System Logger, where all system messages or errors are
stored.

(T)

标记(Tag— 诸如 HTML 之类的标记语言中的命令,它以某种方式(如粗体、居中或使用某种字体)显示信息。
Tag – A command in a markup language, such as HTML, to display information in a
certain way, such as bold, centered or using a certain font.
Tar(磁带归档,Tape ARchive — 包含在 UNIX/Linux 中的一个文件打包工具,用于将一组文件组装成一个组合的文件以便归档起来更容易。它最初设计用于磁带备份,但现在它也可用于其它存储介质。独自运行时,生成具有 .tar 扩展名的文件。当与 Gzip 结合用于数据压缩时,生成的文件扩展名可能是 .tgz、.tar.gz 或 .tar.Z。
Tar (Tape ARchive) – A file packaging tool included with UNIX/Linux for the purpose of assembling a collection of files into one combined file for easier archiving. It was originally designed for tape backup, but today can be used with other storage media. When run by itself, it produces files with a .tar extension. When combined with Gzip, for data compression, the resulting file extensions may be .tgz, .tar.gz or .tar.Z.

Tar 包(Tarball— 用 Tar 实用程序创建的文件,含有一个或多个归档的,同时也有可能进行了压缩的文件。
Tarball – A file created by the Tar utility, containing one or more other archived and, optionally, compressed files.

TeX— 基于宏的流行的文本格式化程序。它是包括 LaTeX 和 teTeX 在内的其它此类格式化程序的基础。
TeX – A popular macro-based text formatter. The basis for other such formatters,
including LaTeX and teTeX.
文本编辑器(Text Editor— 用于编辑文本文件的程序。类似于字处理程序,但没有大多数/全部格式化功能(例如设置页边距、斜体和字体等等。)。经常用于书写或编辑脚本、程序和 ASCII 文本文件(如 README.1ST)。
Text Editor – A program for editing text files. Similar to a word processor, but without most/all of the formatting functions (such as margins, italics, fonts, etc.). Often used for writing or editing scripts, programs and ASCII text files (such as README.1ST).

文本格式化程序(Text Formatter— 准备文本文档以供打印的程序,允许用户执行许多布局功能,如页边距、页眉、页脚、缩排、分页和对齐。
Text Formatter – A program that prepares a text document for printing, allowing the user to perform many layout functions, such as margins, headers, footers, indentation, pagination and justification.

TFTP(小型文件传送协议,Trivial File Transfer Protocol — FTP 的简化版本,它没有 FTP 的认证以及其它许多基本特性。
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) – A simplified version of FTP without authentication or many other basic features of FTP.

线程(Thread— 一小段程序,其行为就象是较大程序的一个独立子集,也称为“进程”。多线程程序能够比单个程序或单线程程序运行得快得多,因为它可以并行(而不是串行(顺序))地执行几个甚至多个不同的任务。而且,单个应用程序内的多个线程可以共享资源,并且相互之间可以来回传递数据。
Thread – A small piece of programming that acts as an independent subset of a larger
program, also called a “process”. A multithreaded program can run much faster than a monolithic, or single-threaded, program because several, or even many, different tasks can be performed concurrently, rather than serially (sequentially). Also, threads within a single application can share resources and pass data back and forth between themselves.
分时(Time-sharing— 一种允许多个用户分享处理器的方法,它以时间为基础给每个用户分配一部分处理器资源,按照这些时间段轮流运行每个用户的进程。
Time-sharing – A method of allowing multiple users to share a processor by allocating each user a portion of the processor resources on a timed basis and rotating each user’s processes within those time segments. (Also, see Multitasking.)

Torvalds, Linus— 1991 年 Linux 内核的最初创建者,是 Linux 版权的拥有者,目前仍然是 Linux 开发项目的协调人。
Torvalds, Linus – The original creator of the Linux kernel in 1991, holder of the Linux copyright, and currently still the coordinator of the Linux development project.

Touch— 一个命令,更改文件的日期/时间戳记,但不影响其内容。
Touch – A command that changes the date/time stamp of a file without affecting the contents.

TrueType 字体— 与 PostScript 字体不一样,它们旨在成为与打印机无关的各种字体。可用于 Apple Macintosh 和 Windows。不常用于 UNIX/Linux。
TrueType Fonts – A wide variety of fonts designed to be printer-independent, unlike PostScript fonts. Available for the Apple Macintosh and Windows. Not commonly used with UNIX/Linux. (Also, see BDF Fonts and PostScript Fonts.)

Tux— 虚构的 Linux 企鹅吉祥物的名字。
Tux – The name of the fictional Linux penguin mascot.

(U) 

UNIX— UNIX 最初作为一个专有操作系统,由 Bell 实验室在 20 世纪 60 年代开发。它最终衍生出了多个相互不兼容的商业版本,这些版本来自 Apple(Mac OS X)、Digital(Digital UNIX)、Hewlett-Packard(HPUX)、IBM(AIX)和 NeXT (NeXTSTEP) 等公司。
UNIX – UNIX began as a proprietary operating system developed by Bell Laboratories in the 1960s. It eventually spawned a number of mutually incompatible commercial versions from such companies as Apple (Mac OS X), Digital (Digital UNIX), Hewlett-Packard (HP-UX), IBM (AIX), NeXT (NeXTSTEP) and others.

UUCP— 一组程序和协议,已成为世界范围的 UNIX 计算机网络的基础。是以 UNIX 到 UNIX 复制程序(UNIX to UNIX Copy Program)来命名的。
UUCP – A set of programs and protocols that have become the basis for a worldwide
network of UNIX computers. Named after the UNIX to UNIX Copy Program.

(V)

虚拟桌面(Virtual Desktop— 一种将用户的工作区扩展到计算机屏幕边界以外的方法。该桌面可以上下左右滚动,就好象一个更大的桌面放置在玻璃屏幕后面,并且可以四处移动以显示图标、窗口以及其它一些“在幕后”或视野以外的对象。或者,如同 KDE 桌面,可以使用多个按钮,每个按钮都显示大小等于玻璃屏幕的桌面区域,而且每个都含有不同对象。
Virtual Desktop – A method for expanding the user’s workspace beyond the boundaries of the computer screen. The desktop may be scrollable left and right, up and down, as if a larger desktop were positioned behind the glass screen and moved around to reveal icons, windows and other objects that were “off-stage,” or out of view. Alternatively, as with the KDE desktop, multiple buttons may be available, each of which displays an area of desktop equal to the size of the glass screen and which can each contain different objects.

虚拟机(Virtual Machine— 虚拟机(VM)是中央处理器芯片的特征,它将内存的某个区域同系统的剩余部分隔离开来。因为操作系统和应用程序运行于“保护模式”环境之下,所以如果某个程序在某个虚拟机中冻结了,那么它将不会影响运行于该虚拟机以外的程序和操作系统的运行。
Virtual Machine – Virtual Machines (VMs) are features of central processor chips that isolate an area of memory from the rest of the system. Because operating systems and applications run in a “protected mode” environment, if a program freezes in one Virtual Machine it will not affect the operation of the programs and operating systems running outside of that Virtual Machine.

虚拟内存(Virtual Memory— 使用一部分磁盘空间来作为内存的临时的存储区域的过程。与“交换”意思相同。
Virtual Memory – The process of using a portion of disk space as a temporary storage
area for memory. Synonymous with Swap.

VRML(虚拟现实建模语言,Virtual Reality Modeling Language — 一种主要基于 Web 的语言,用于 3D 效果(如构建遍历)。
VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) – A primarily Web-based language used for 3D effects (such as building walk-throughs).

(W)

窗口构件(Widget— 用于 X Window 系统的图形用户界面编程对象(按钮、滚动条和单选按钮等等)。
Widget – A graphical user interface programming object (button, scrollbar, radio button, etc.) for the X Window System.

窗口管理器(Window Manager— 一个图形用户界面(GUI),它运行于 X Window 之上,以便为用户提供窗口、图标、任务栏和其它桌面对象。
Window Manager – The graphical user interface (GUI) that runs on top of X Window to provide the user with windows, icons, taskbars and other desktop objects. (Also, see Desktop.)

工作目录(Working Directory— 当前目录或用户当前工作时所在的目录的另一名称。
Working Directory – Another name for the current directory, or the directory in which the user is currently working.

工作区(Workspace— Root Window 或桌面的另一名称。
Workspace – Another name for the Root Window, or Desktop.

封装器(Wrapper— 用于启动另一个程序的程序。
Wrapper – A program used to start another program.

(X) 

X Window 系统— UNIX 的图形窗口环境。许多用户界面都需要的底层编程。
X Window System – A graphical windowing environment for UNIX. The underlying
programming required by many user interfaces. (Also, see Desktop, Window Manager
and XFree86.)
X11— X Window 系统的 V11。
X11 – Version 11 of the X Window System.

XDMX 显示管理器,X Display Manager — X Window 系统对用户友好的登录前端。经常用于网吧或校园环境,在这些地方,不熟悉 UNIX 的用户偶尔需要访问 UNIX。
XDM (X Display Manager) – User-friendly login front end for the X Window System. Often used in a cyber café or campus environment where users who are not familiar with UNIX need occasional access.

XFree86— Linux 的一个 X Window 系统版本。被 GNOME、KDE 和其它 Linux 用户界面/窗口管理器所使用。
XFree86 – A version of the X Window System for Linux. Used by GNOME, KDE and other
Linux user interfaces/window managers.

XHTML(可扩展超文本标记语言,extensible Hyper Text Markup Language — HTML 的增强版本,它支持象 XML 那样的由程序员定义的扩展。
XHTML (extensible Hyper Text Markup Language) – An enhanced version of HTML
that supports programmer-defined extensions like XML.
XML(可扩展标记语言,eXtensible Markup Language — 用于设计 Web 页面的、功能强大的新型标记语言;它可以替代较老的 HTML,允许程序员定义他们自己的标记或格式化命令。
XML (eXtensible Markup Language) – A powerful new markup language for designing
Web pages; an alternative to the older HTML, allowing programmers to define their own markup tags, or formatting commands.

(Z) 

Zip— 一种流行的文件压缩/归档格式,可以用于许多操作系统平台,包括 DOS/Windows、OS/2 和 UNIX/Linux。流行的工具包括 PKZip/PKUnzip 和 Zip/Unzip。不要将其与 Iomega Zip 磁盘相混淆,后者是一种可移动存储设备。(令人迷惑的是,用 Zip 压缩的文件可以存储在 Zip 磁盘上,也可以不存储在该磁盘上。二者之间并无关联。)用 Zip 压缩的文件具有 .zip 扩展名。
Zip – A popular form of file compression/archiving available on many operating system platforms, including DOS/Windows, OS/2 and UNIX/Linux. Popular tools include
PKZip/PKUnzip and Zip/Unzip. Not to be confused with the Iomega Zip disk, which is a removable storage device. (Confusingly, a zipped file can be stored on a Zip disk—or not. They are unrelated.) Zipped files will have a .zip extension.
区域(Zone— 在管理或其它控制下的网络区域。在名称服务器配置内,域可以是一个区域。区域可以进一步细分为子区域,每个都可以拥有自己的管理员和服务器。
Zone – An area of a network under administrative or other control. In a name server
configuration, a domain can be a zone. Zones can be further subdivided into subzones,
each having its own administrators and servers.
Zoo— Amiga 系统上一种流行的压缩和归档格式,也可用于 UNIX/Linux。用这种方法打包的文件,其扩展名为 .zoo。
Zoo – A format for compression and archiving popular on Amiga systems, but also
available for UNIX/Linux. Files packaged this way sport a .zoo file extension.

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